Quantum dots, nanocyrstals and nano prisms
Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals on the scale of a few nanometers, or several hundred atoms. At this size quantum effects dominate and the electrons are quantum confined to narrow energy levels determined by the size of the particle. This means that the absorption wavelength the light can be fine-tuned and that quantum dots can be used to adjust the bandgap of the materials they are associated with. Quantum dots being explored for use in photovoltaics and in signal processing.
See synthesis techniques